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HYDROPEDOLOGY IN THE TROPICS

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Nowadays, the concern with natural resources has been more and more necessary, as soil and water are fundamental elements to understand the balance between the need for agricultural, livestock production and environmental sustainability. In this context, the relationship between Pedology and Hydrology has been debated and analyzed in recent years, contributing to creation of a multidisciplinary science, Hydropedology, which seeks to integrate the respective fields of the knowledge, promoting the interface between pedosphere and hydrosphere with emphasis on soils and associated landscapes. In Chapter 1, a background in Hydrology and Pedology is discussed, supporting by the hydrological cycle, hydrology and land use relationship, pedological survey as tool for Hydropedology, soil surveys in Brazil and soil mapping as support for hydrologic investigations. In Chapter 2, the most used tools for Hydropedology studies are presented. In Chapter 3, a case study about water balance in a forested critical zone located at a headwater region of southeastern Brazil is presented. In this chapter we discussed some background ideas about forest hydrology and its importance for the understanding of soil hydrological behavior in headwater landscapes, highlighting the water storage and transmissivity into the saturated zone of the watershed, supporting water erosion investigations and impacts on water quality. In Chapter 4, a case study about the role of Inceptisols in the hydrology of mountainous catchments in Southeastern Brazil is presented. This study showed that forested Inceptisols, some shallows, have greater potential for water percolation beginning from the surface layer towards the saturated zone, helping to understand the water recharge process and streamflow behavior. In Chapter 5, a case study demonstrates how digital soil mapping techniques, mainly fuzzy logic, can be used for the development of indices for predicting the potential of aquifer’s recharge based on soil classes, soil hydrology properties, landscape and land use. Fuzzy logic has shown adequate performance for soils mapping and their attributes prediction and has been successfully applied in the prediction of hydropedological attributes, like soil-water transmissivity and saturated soil hydraulic conductivity. Its application in a hydropedological context can be a very promising tool, helping the understanding of how the water interacts with landscape features. In Chapter 6, a case study evaluated a modeling process based on a pattern recognition application using landscape classification tools combined with digital soil mapping techniques for mapping soil-water transmissivity in a watershed in southeastern Brazil. The findings of this work indicate a clear relationship between land use with regard to hydropedological properties in the region study, demonstrating the role of native forests, specifically Atlantic Forest, in water percolation in soil profile and, consequently, the water yield capacity of watersheds with well-preserved native forests. In Chapter 7, a case study about the hydropedological properties of a mountainous Clayey Humic Dystrudept in mountainous region of Brazil is presented, comparing two land uses, native forest and pasture. The results of this work call for a greater attention to the degradation processes occurring in this part of the country, especially in relation to the deforestation at an accelerated pace, since this is also an important environment for conservation of endemic species of flora and fauna, and maintaining the production of water throughout the year. The last chapter provides final considerations about Hydropedology in tropical conditions and challenges for next future of this branch of science.

CHAPTER 1 - BACKGROUND IN HYDROLOGY AND PEDOLOGY
1.1 Hydrological cycle and water balance – 13
1.2 Hydrological models for water balance – 22
1.3 Interweaving soil and hydrology sciences – 27
1 A Soil, hydrology and land use relationship – 31
1.5 Pedological survey as a tool for Hydropedology – 35
1.5.1 Soil surveys in Brazil – 36
1.5.2 Soil mapping as a support for hydrological investigations – 38
1.6 References – 42

CHAPTER 2 - SOME MAIN TOOLS FOR HYDROPEDOLOGY STUDIES
2.1 Micromorphology analyses – 53
2.2 X-Ray computed tomography (X-Ray CT) – 57
2.3 Digital Soil Mapping tools – 60
2.3.1 Fuzzy Logic methods – 60
2.3.2 Conditioned Latin hypercube sampling method – 63
2.3.3 Geomorphons – 65
2.4 References – 67

CHAPTER 3 - WATER BALANCE IN A FORESTED CRITICAL ZONE: A CASE STUDY FOR A HEADWATER REGION OF SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL
3.1 Background ideas about forest hydrology – 77
3.2 The description of the studied Critical Zone – 78
3.3 Benchmark data – 81
3.3.1 Observed meteorological conditions between 2009 and 2011 in the AFMC – 81
3.3.2 Evapotranspiration – 86
3.3.3 Soil moisture – 87
3.3.4 Water balance – 90
3.5 Concluding remarks – 95
3.6 References – 95

CHAPTER 4 - THE ROLE OF INCEPTISOLS IN THE HYDROLOGY OF MOUNTAINOUS CATCHMENTS IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL
4.1 Introduction – 101
4.2 Site Description – 103
4.3 LCW weather characterization – 106
4.4 The Upper Mountain Cloud Forest (UMCF) – 107
4.5 Benchmarks data – 107
4.5.1 Hydrological behavior of LCW and UMCF between 2009 and 2011 – 107
4.5.2 Properties of Inceptisols – 111
4.5.3 Micromorphological analyses – 116
4.6 Concluding remarks – 118
4.7 References – 118

CHAPTER 5 - KNOWLEDGE BASED INFERENCE MAPS FOR PREDICTING THE GROUNDWATER RECHARGE POTENTIAL
5.1 Introduction – 125
5.2 Geomorphological characteristics of the Upper Grande River region – 126
5.2.1 Climate – 126
5.2.2 Land use – 126
5.2.3 Geology – 127
5.2.4 Soils and landscape – 127
5.2.5 Two studied watersheds inside Upper Grande River basin – 138
5.3 Potential of applicability from Hydropedology perspective – 131
5.3.1 Scores and typical values of potentiality of groundwater recharge – 131
5.3.2 Spatial prediction of the groundwater recharge potential at MCW and LCW – 139
5.4 Considerations and suggestions for future studies – 147
5.5 References – 147

CHAPTER 6 - SPATIAL PREDICTION OF SOIL-WATER TRANSMISSIVITY BASED ON FUZZY LOGIC IN A BRAZILIAN HEADWATER WATERSHED
6.1 Introduction – 157
6.2. Benchmarks data – 159
6.3 Concluding remarks – 165
6.4 References – 165

CHAPTER 7 - HYDROPEDOLOGICAL APPROACH IN A MOUNTAINOUS CLAYEY HUMIC DYSTRUDEPT IN THE MANTIQUEIRA RANGE, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL
7.1 Introduction – 171
7.2 Study area remarks – 171
7.3 Benchmarks data – 172
7.3.1 Characterization of the hydropedology elements for LCW – 172
7.3.2 Micromorphology – 180
7.3.3 Soil erosion and hydrological indicators – 181
7.4 Concluding remarks – 186
7.5 References – 186

CHAPTER 8 - FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
8.1 References – 196


Organizadores: Carlos Rogério de Mello, Lloyd Darrell Norton, Leandro Campos Pinto e Nilton Curi
Ano: 2019
Número de Páginas: 199
Tamanho: 17 x 24 cm
Editora: UFLA
Acabamento: Brochura
ISBN: 9788581270920


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