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MINERAL NUTRITION OF HIGHER PLANTS
 
MINERAL NUTRITION OF HIGHER PLANTS     
  
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Respected and known worldwide in the field for his research in plant nutrition. Dr. Horst Marschner authored two editions of Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. His research greatly advanced the understanding of plant nutrition ranging from rhizosphere processes to nutrient uptake and utilization by plants in the field. While visiting field experiments in West Africa in 1996, Dr. Marschner contracted malaria and passed away, and until now this legacy title went unrevised. Despite the passage of time, it remains the definitive reference on plant mineral nutrition.

Since the last edition, great progress has been made in the understanding of various aspects of plant nutrition. In recent years, the perspective on the mode of action of nutrients in plant metabolism and yield formation has shifted. Much progress has been made in the molecular aspects of nutrient uptake and transport within plants as well as the responses of plants to nutrient deficiency or toxicity. These and many other developments are covered in this long-awaited new edition.

Together with key plant nutritionists (many of whom worked with Horst Marschner on his research), Horst Marschner’s daughter, Dr. Petra Marschner, now presents a thoroughly updated and revised third edition of Marschoers Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, maintaining its value for plant nutritionists worldwide.

KEY FEATURES
A long-awaited revision of the standard reference on plant mineral nutrition.
Features full coverage and new discussions of the latest molecular advances.
Contains new chapters on agro-ecosystems as well as nutrition and quality.

Foreword – v
Preface to First Edition – vii
Preface to Second Edition – ix
Contributing Authors – xi

Part I - Nutritional Physiology
1. Introduction, Definition and Classification of Nutrients
1.1 General – 3
1.2 Essential Elements for Plant Growth – 3
1.3 Biochemical Behaviour and Physiological Functions of Elements in Plants – 4

2. Ion Uptake Mechanisms of Individual Cells and Roots: Short-distance Transport
2.1 General – 7
2.2 Pathway of Solutes from the External Solution into Root Cells – 8
2.3 Composition of Biological Membranes – 10
2.4 Solute Transport Across Membranes – 13
2.5 Factors Affecting Ion Uptake by Roots – 21
2.6 Uptake of Ions and Water along the Root Axis – 39
2.7 Radial Transport of Ions and Water Across the Root – 41
2.8 Release of Ions into the Xylem – 43
2.9 - Factors Affecting Ion Release into the Xylem and Exudation Rate – 44

3. L Long-distance Transport in the Xylem and Phloem
3.1 General – 49
3.2 Xylem Transport – 50
3.3 Phloem Transport – 58
3.4 Relative Importance of Phloem and Xylem for Long-distance Transport of Nutrients – 62
3.5 Remobilization of Nutrients – 66

4. k Uptake and Release of Elements by Leaves and Other Aerial Plant Parts
4.1 General – 71
4.2 Uptake and Release of Gases and Other Volatile Compounds Through Stomata – 71
4.3 Uptake of Solutes – 74
4.4 Foliar Application of Nutrients – 78
4.5 Leaching of Elements from Leaves – 82
4.6 Ecological Importance of Uptake and Leaching of Solutes from Leaves – 83

5. Mineral Nutrition, Yield and Source-Sink Relationships
5.1 General – 85
5.2 Relationships between Nutrient Supply and Yield – 86
5.3 Photosynthetic Activity and Related Processes – 87
5.4 Photosynthetic Area - 102
5.5 Respiration and Oxidative Phosphorylation – 105
5.6 Phloem Transport of Assimilates and its Regulation – 107
5.7 Sink Formation – 113
5.8 Sink Activity – 117
5.9 Role of Phytohormones in the Regulation of the Sink-Source Relationships – 120
5.10 Source and Sink Limitations on Yield – 131

6. Functions of Macronutrients
6.1 Nitrogen – 135
6.2 Sulphur – 151
6.3 Phosphorus – 158
6.4 Magnesium – 165
6.5 Calcium – 171
6.6 Potassium – 178

7. Function of Nutrients: Micronutrients
7.1 Iron – 191
7.2 Manganese – 200
7.3 Copper – 206
7.4 Zinc – 212
7.5 Nickel – 223
7.6 Molybdenum – 226
7.7 Boron – 233
7.8 Chlorine – 243

8. Beneficial Elements
8.1 Definition – 249
8.2 Sodium – 249
8.3 Silicon – 257
8.4 Cobalt – 261
8.5 Selenium – 263
8.6 Aluminium – 268
8.7 Other Elements – 268

9. Nutrition and Quality
9.1 Introduction – 271
9.2 Nutrition and Appearance – 272
9.3 Nutrition and Chemical Composition – 273

10. Relationship between Nutrition, Plant Diseases and Pests
10.1 General – 283
10.2 Relationship between Susceptibility and Nutritional Status of Plants – 284
10.3 Fungal Diseases – 285
10.4 Bacterial and Viral Diseases – 291
10.5 Soil-borne Fungal and Bacterial Diseases – 293
10.6 Pests – 295
10.7 Direct and Indirect Effects of Fertilizer Application on the Performance of Plants and Their Parasites – 297

11. Diagnosis of Deficiency and Toxicity of Nutrients
11.1 General – 299
11.2 Nutrient Supply and Growth Response – 299
11.3 Diagnosis of Nutritional Disorders by Visible Symptoms – 300
11.4 Plant Analysis – 301
11.5 Histochemical and Biochemical Methods – 310
11.6 Plant Analysis versus Soil Analysis – 311

Part II - Plant-Soil Relationships

12. Nutrient Availability in Soil
12.1 General – 315
12.2 Chemical Soil Analysis – 315
12.3 Movement of Nutrients to the Root I Surface – 316
12.4 Role of Root Density – 324
12.5 Nutrient Availability and Distribution 1 of Water in Soils – 324
12.6 Role of Soil Structure – 325
12.7 Intensity/Quantity Ratio, Plant Factors I and Consequences for Soil Testing – 328

13. Effect of Internal and External Factors on Root Growth and Development
13.1 General – 331
13.2 Carbohydrate Supply – 331
13.3 Root Development – 332
13.4 Soil Chemical Factors – 334
13.5 Soil Organisms – 340
13.6 Soil Physical Factors – 342
13.7 Shoot/Root Ratio – 345

14. Rhizosphere Chemistry in Relation to Plant Nutrition
14.1 General – 347
14.2 Spatial Extent of the Rhizosphere – 349
14.3 Inorganic Elements in the Rhizosphere – 350
14.4 Rhizosphere pH – 353
14.5 Redox Potential and Reducing Processes – 359
14.6 Rhizodeposition and Root Exudates – 360

15. Rhizosphere Biology
15.1 General – 369
15.2 Rhizosphere Microorganisms – 369
15.3 Mycorrhiza – 373

16. Nitrogen Fixation
16.1 General – 389
16.2 Biological Nitrogen-fixing Systems – 389
16.3 Biochemistry of Nitrogen Fixation – 390
16.4 Symbiotic Systems – 392
16.5 Amounts of N Fixed by Legumes, and its Transfer to Other Plants in Mixed Stands – 405
16.6 Significance of Free-living and Associative Nitrogen Fixation – 407
16.7 Outlook – 408

17. Adaptation of Plants to Adverse Chemical Soil Conditions
17.1 Natural Vegetation – 409
17.2 High-input versus Low-input Approach – 410
17.3 Acid Mineral Soils – 417
17.4 Waterlogged and Flooded Soils – 430
17.5 Calcareous and Alkaline Soils – 444
17.6 Saline Soils – 455

18. Nutrient and Carbon Fluxes in Terrestrial Agro-Ecosystems
18.1 Microbiological Factors Determining Carbon and Nitrogen Emissions – 473
18.2 Effects of Organic Soil Amendments on Emissions – 475
18.3 Effects of pH, Soil Water Content and Temperature on Matter Turnover – 475
18.4 Global Warming Effects – 476
18.5 Plant-animal Interactions Affecting Nutrient Fluxes at Different Scales – 476
18.6 Modelling Approaches in Matter Fluxes – 482

References – 483
Index - 645

Editor: Petra Marschner
Year: 2012
Number of Pages: 651
Size: 22 X 28 cm
Publisher: Academic Press
Finish: Ard cover
ISBN: 978-0-12-384905-2
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